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Referencing - BU Harvard: Moving Images and Sound (e.g. YouTube, podcast, TV, film, song, radio)

Moving image sound image

Important Notes:

  • When deciding which category your source belongs to, first consider what type of medium it was originally created or intended for, rather than the format you have accessed it.
  • Where type is the same as format, e.g. a television or radio programme that was watched or listened to in real time, only the type needs to be stated in square brackets.

Instructions how to reference Moving Images and Sound

Click on the headings below for instructions

Referencing moving images accessed online: details, order and format

Referencing online video

Instructions for referencing moving images accessed online

Citing in the main text of your work

  • e.g. In a BBC iPlayer radio podcast titled 'Britain: the Psychology of War' (2018)...

Referencing at the end of your work

Originator,/Surname/Family Name, INITIALS., Year. Title [type, format]. Place of publication or production (if available): Publisher or Producer (if available). Available from: URL [Accessed Date].

YouTube video example:

  • e.g. Bournemouth University, 2016. Bournemouth Gateway Development [video, online]. YouTube. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VUAllTN6srI [Accessed 28 August 2016].

Podcast example:

  • e.g. BBC iPlayer Radio, 2018. The war that changed the world - Britain: the psychology of war [podcast, online]. London: BBC World Service. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/1SsR5r9l3S5rQFTPFmjsXZK/podcast [Accessed 30 July 2018].

Referencing a TV programme: details, order and format

Referencing TV

Instructions for referencing a TV programme

Citing in the main text of your work

  • e.g. In a TV news report on education (News at Ten 2015) it was stated that...

Referencing at the end of your work

Programme Title, Series, Episode number or title, Year. [type, format]. Production credit (e.g. Director or Producer). Production place: Production company. Channel. Date, Time of transmission.

  • e.g. Doctor Who, Series 8, Episode 4, Listen, 2014. [television programme]. BBC One. 13 September 2014, 19:00.
  • e.g. Curb Your Enthusiasm, Series 7, Episode 10, Seinfeld, 2010. [television programme, DVD]. Directed by Jeff Schaffer and Andy Ackerman. New York: HBO.
  • e.g. News at Ten, 2015. [television programme]. ITV. 27 January 2015, 22:00.

Contributions: individual items within a programme should be cited as contributors.

  • e.g. Dyke, Greg, 2015. Interview. In: Six o’clock News [television programme]. BBC1. 1 June 2015, 18:10.

Referencing a film: details, order and format

Referencing film

Instructions for referencing a film

Citing in the main text of your work

  • e.g. During an action scene in the James Bond film 'Skyfall' (2012)...

Referencing at the end of your work

Film Title, Year. (For films the preferred date is the year of release in the country of production.) [type, format]. Production credit (e.g. Director or Producer). Production place: Production company.

  • e.g. Skyfall, 2012. [film, DVD]. Directed by Sam Mendes. UK: Eon Productions.

Referencing song lyrics: details, order and format

Referencing song

Instructions for referencing song lyrics

Citing in the main text of your work

  • e.g. In a 1980 radio advertising campaign for this brand, the song 'Paperback Writer' (Lennon and McCartney 1966) was used, which marketed...

Referencing at the end of your work

Lyricist's Surname, INITIALS., Year of distribution. Title of song [online] (if applicable). Place of distribution: Distribution company. Available from: URL [Accessed date] (if applicable).

  • e.g. Lennon, J. and McCartney, P., 1966. Paperback writer. Liverpool: Northern Songs. Available from: http://www.metrolyrics.com/paperback-writer-lyrics-beatles.html [Accessed 26 May 2016].
 

Referencing a radio programme: details, order and format

Referencing radio

Instructions for referencing a radio programme

Citing in the main text of your work

  • e.g. In the BBC Radio 4 panel show 'Just a Minute' (2013) contestants...

Referencing at the end of your work

Programme Title, Programme details e.g. series, episode. Year. [type, format]. Radio Channel. Date of radio programme. Time of radio programme.

  • e.g. Just a Minute, Series 66, Episode 5, 2013. [radio programme]. BBC Radio 4. 24 June 2013. 22:00.