Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Referencing - BU Harvard 22-23 Full Guide: Quotations/Paraphrasing/Summarising

Citing other people's work

Anything you use from a source that is written or produced by another author should be cited in the main text of your work and referenced in a list at the end of your work.

You can cite in three main ways:

  1. Quote – Use the exact words of another author
  2. Paraphrase – Rewrite an argument in your own words
  3. Summarise – Pick out the main points of an argument and write in your own words
  • Find more guidance on academic writing in our online study skills guide Reading & Writing.
  • In the Harvard System all cited publications are referred to in the main body of text by giving the author’s surname/family name and the year of publication.
  • Each cited publication must have a corresponding full reference in the list of references at the end of your work.
  • The references are listed in alphabetical order by author surname / name of organisation.

 

  • Paraphrased information must be referenced.
  • To better understand how to paraphrase, we recommend you complete the Skills4StudyCampus 'Understanding Plagiarism' module (link provided on this page, below).
Body text in collapsable 8

Quotations

  • For all quotes include page numbers and quotation marks. If the source you are using does not have page numbers then you cannot include that detail, which would be acceptable (check with a BU Librarian if you are unsure).
  • If the quote is less than a line long "it may be included in the main body of text like this" (Bournemouth University 2020, p.1). 
  • As demonstrated in this next example:

"Longer quotations should be indented and appear in double quotation marks,

so this is an example showing how to insert longer quotations"

(Bournemouth University 2020, p.1).

  • Check your Programme and Unit Handbooks or ask BU academics for details on how to format the line spacing in your assignments e.g. it may need to be 1.5 line spaced.

 

Paraphrasing

  • You can paraphrase someone else's work, idea or theory providing that you acknowledge the source and reference it.
  • You are paraphrasing when you put another's work, idea or theory into your own words. It is an important skill as it can demonstrate that you have properly understood the original writer's meaning.
  • It does not mean copying a piece of text and just changing a few of the words. When you paraphrase correctly the writing will be in your own style and express the original author's work, idea or theory.
  • Paraphrased information must be referenced.
  • To better understand how to paraphrase, we recommend you complete the Skills4StudyCampus 'Understanding Plagiarism' module (link provided on this page, below).

Summarising