Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
- Use the name(s) of the person or organisation shown most prominently in the source as being responsible for the content.
- If no author is given and there is clearly no identifiable person or organisation, use ‘Anon.’, except for webpages, newspapers, film, dictionaries or encyclopaedias (see No author or clearly identifiable person/organisation responsible for further guidance).
- For all examples use the same author notation in both the main text of your work and in the list of references at the end - they must match.
When citing in the main text of your work the surnames of both should be given:-
- e.g. Matthews and Jones (2001) have proposed that…
More than two authors (3+ authors)
When citing in the main text of your work the surname of the first author only should be given, followed by et al.:
- e.g. Office costs amount to 20% of total costs in most business (Wilson et al. 2020).
Then all authors’ names should be noted in the reference list at the end.
et al. means 'and others'