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Referencing - BU Harvard 22-23 Full Guide: Personal communications e.g interviews

Personal communications (letters, emails, interviews, personal photos etc)

  • We recommend that references to personal communications such as letters and emails are given only within the main text of your work and are not added in the reference list at the end of your work.
  • You may be instructed, or choose, to include evidence of personal communications in an Appendix section (check with academic setting your assignment before including Appendices).
  • Cite personal communications only in the main text of your work. Give the name and/or occupation of person. Provide an accurate date when the communication took place.

e.g. According to Professor J.O. Reiss, many designers do not understand the needs of disabled people (personal communication, 18 April 2014, Appendix 1).

  • When citing research data which you have collected (your own primary research) it is recommended you include copies or summaries of this data in Appendices.
  • If you wish to use photos you have taken, ensure you have considered ethics / confidentiality, and, check it is acceptable to use your own photos with BU academics who set and mark the assignment. If you choose to use personal photos, insert them as figures following the instructions on Citing in the main text of your work - point 6, and, an example is shown in the Example Essay.