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Open Access and Depositing your Research: Open Access Glossary

What is an accepted version?

It is the version of your output that

  • has been accepted for publication
  • has been peer-reviewed
  • but has generally not yet had the publisher's layout and typesetting applied

This can often be a Word version of your publication but some publishers work with templates from the submission stage so it is necessary to store all versions of your output until you receive confirmation of acceptance.

Most publishers allow this (and only this) version to be made available in an open access repository, usually after an embargo period has passed.

This is also known as a post-print, author accepted manuscript (AAM) or author's final version.

What is an APC?

An APC (article processing charge) is the fee paid to the publisher to cover the cost of making research open access via the gold open access route.

Contact  Open Access Funding  for information


What is Creative Commons licensing?

See dedicated section on Creative Commons Licensing

What is a DOI?

Digital Object Identifier: A unique identifier for an online document, used by most online journal publishers. As the DOI is unique to the publication, and the underlying metadata will include the most up-to-date location of the file, referring to an online document by its DOI provides more stable linking than simply referring to it by its URL.

What is double dipping?

This is the practice whereby institutions effectively pay publishers twice – once via a journal subscription fee and secondly via article processing charges (APCs) for gold open access articles in subscription journals.

whereby institutions effectively pay publishers twice – once via a journal subscription fee and secondly via article processing charges (APCs) for gold open access articles. LERU is calling on - See more at:

What is an embargo period?

Publishers often specify an embargo period with green open access. This can vary from 6 months to 48 months. REF policy stipulates that STEM subjects (Panels A  and B) can have a maximum embargo of 12 months, for all other subject area of 24 months (Panels C and D). Individual funders may specify shorter embargo periods. If the journal you wish to publish in has a longer embargo please contact the BRIAN team for advice.

Sherpa Romeo is a useful guide for journals. Some publishers such as Elsevier have a separate journal specific list of embargo periods for UK authors. BURO staff are happy to advise on this.

What is Gold Open Access?

  Gold Open Access is where the author makes their article Open Access in a journal, usually for a fee known as an APC. This journal may be exclusively  Open Access, or it may have a mixture of Open Access and subscription-only articles.

What is Green Open Access?

Green Open Access is where the author publishes in a journal and then deposits a version of this article into a subject or institutional repository such as  BURO. This is also known as self-archiving.

What is a hybrid journal?

A hybrid open access journal is a subscription journal in which some of the articles are open access. This status typically requires the payment of a publication fee (also called an article processing charge or APC) to the publisher.

What is an institutional repository?

An institutional repository is a digital repository for the storage of outputs from research undertaken at an organisation. It acts as a showcase of that  University's research and aids networking and collaboration with other researchers

The repository can be: completely open access with all content available after any embargoes specified by publishers are met; completely closed; or a mixture of the two.

Generally content includes: articles, conference papers , monographs, book chapters, reports, datasets.

BURO is BU's open access institutional repository and research outputs and their files are added to it by academics engaging with BRIAN as the single sign on publications manager.

BURO, as an open access repository, only contains research outputs that have files attached.

Research outputs, both metadata only with no files, and those with files linked to BURO, are listed under individual names on the BU staff profile pages.

What is an ISBN?

An ISBN is an International Standard Book Number. ISBNs were 10 digits in length up to the end of December 2006, but since 1 January 2007 they now always consist of 13 digits. ISBNs are calculated using a specific mathematical formula and include a check digit to validate the number.

What is an ISSN?

An ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) is an 8 digit number assigned to many serial publications such as journals, newspapers,magazines, annuals, and series of books. 



  • Print:          0028-0836
  • Electronic: 1476-4687

What is Open Access funding?

See section on Open Access funding

What is Plan S?

Plan S is an initiative for Open Access publishing that was launched in September 2018. The plan is supported by cOAlition S, an international consortium of research funding and performing organisations. Plan S requires that, from 2021, scientific publications that result from research funded by public grants must be published in compliant Open Access journals or platforms.

For more information see here

What is a pre-print?

This is the submitted version of a work before peer review.

What is a transformative agreement?

“Transformative agreement” is an umbrella term describing those agreements negotiated between institutions (libraries, national and regional consortia) and publishers in which former subscription expenditures are repurposed to support open access publishing, thus transforming the business model underlying scholarly journal publishing, gradually and definitively shifting from one based on toll access (subscription) to one in which publishers are remunerated a fair price for their open access publishing services.

These agreements are a significant departure from the previous standard in subscription license agreements, as they bring the two transactional sides of subscription-based journals, reading access (subscription fees paid by libraries) and open access publishing (“hybrid” APCs predominantly paid by authors), under one centrally negotiated agreement. The dual aim of the negotiations is to bring institutional investments in scholarly journal publishing under oversight and control, with an eye to cost reduction, and to drive a transition of scholarly journal publishing to open access.

For further information see here

What is a Transformative Journal?

A Transformative Journal (TJ) is a subscription/hybrid journal that is actively committed to transitioning to a fully Open Access journal.

In addition, a Transformative Journal must:

  • gradually increase the share of Open Access content; and
  • offset subscription income from payments for publishing services (to avoid double payments).

For further information see here

What is the Version of Record?

The version of record is the version of the manuscript published in a journal with the journal's typesetting, formatting and branding. This is typically a pdf that can be downloaded from a publisher's website.

See also What is an accepted version?