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Referencing - UK & EU Law: Repeated references

How do repeated references work?

You may refer to the same source several times in your work. The first time it is mentioned, you must give a full reference to the source (see 'Footnotes'). After that, you can reference the source in a footnote as follows:

1. Use a shortened form of the source name.

2. Indicate the footnote number where a full reference to the source was last given (n...).

In the above example, footnote 1 contains a full reference to a book by Robert Stevens. In footnote 26, the same book is referenced again. The repeated reference includes: the author's last name (Stevens) and the footnote number where a full reference to the source was last given (n 1).

Can I use Latin terms?

Do not use Latin 'gadgets' such as supra, infra, ante, id, op cit, loc cit and contra.

The abbreviation ibid (meaning 'in the same place') can be used to repeat a citation in the immediately preceding footnote. Never italicize or capitalise ibid.

If there is more than one citation in the preceding footnote, use ‘ibid’ only if you are referring again to ALL the citations in that footnote.

Repeated reference: Secondary source

Secondary sources include: official materials; books, journals; websites and web documents.

Give a full reference to the source in a footnote the first time it is mentioned (see 'Footnotes').

After that, it can be cited using the author's last name and the footnote number where a full reference to the source was last given (n ...). See 'How do repeated references work?', above, for an example.

Repeated reference: Case

Give a full reference to the case the first time it is mentioned (see 'Footnotes'). After that, it can be cited as follows:

For a civil case, use the first party name. For the example below, the case name - Phelps v Hillingdon LBC - was given in the text of the work and the case citation was given in footnote 14 when the case was first mentioned. The repeated reference is given in footnote 19.

For a criminal case, use the second party name. For the example below, the case name - R v Evans - was given in the text of the work and the case citation was given in footnote 11 when the case was first mentioned. The repeated reference is given in footnote 23.

For a case with a 'popular name', give this in brackets after the citation when the case is first referenced.

Repeated reference: Legislation

Give a full reference to the legislation the first time it is mentioned (see 'Footnotes'). After that, it can be cited as follows:

Use an abbreviated form of the title (initials of the main words) plus the year. Give this in (round brackets) after the citation when the legislation is first referenced. After that, use the abbreviated reference.

For a legislation with a 'popular name', give this in brackets after the citation when the legislation is first referenced. After that, use the popular name.