Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Referencing - UK & EU Law: Pre-1865 case

How do I reference a pre-1865 case?

Pre-1865 judgments were published in 'nominate reports'. Many of these have been reprinted in a series called the English Reports.

This guidance applies whether you found the law report in print or online.

case name | (year) | volume | nominate report abbreviation | first page, | volume | English Report abbreviation | first page

Footnote (if you HAVE given the case name in the text of your work):
e.g. (1857) 2 H&N 564, 157 ER 232

Footnote (if you HAVE NOT given the case name in the text of your work):
e.g. Boulton v Jones (1857) 2 H&N 564, 157 ER 232

Bibliography:
e.g. Boulton v Jones (1857) 2 H&N 564, 157 ER 232

To pinpoint, follow the citation with a comma and the page number from the English Reports. To pinpoint several pages, insert a dash between the page numbers:
e.g. Boulton v Jones (1857) 2 H&N 564, 157 ER 232, 233-235

Case name

  • Always give party names in italics
  • Separate adverse parties with an italic v
  • Don't include and another
  • If multiple parties, name only the first claimant and the first defendant
  • If an individual, don't include forenames or initials
  • Use Re, not In re or In the matter of
  • Use Ex p, not Ex parte
  • Include terms indicating corporate status (Ltd, plc)
  • Abbreviate common words and phrases (see Oscola appendix 4.2.4).

Nominate report citation

  • The year is always given in (round brackets)
  • Use a standard abbreviation for the title of a nominate report series (check the Cardiff Index)
  • No punctuation is needed - use H&N, not H.& N.

English Report citation

  • Don't repeat the year in the English Report citation if it has been given in the nominate report citation
  • Use the standard abbreviation for the English Reports - ER
  • No punctuation is needed - use ER not E.R. 
  • Don't give the court at the end of the English Report citation; if you need to identify the court, do so in the text of your work.