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Referencing - UK & EU Law: Pre-1865 case

How do I reference a pre-1865 case?

Pre-1865 judgments were published in 'nominate reports'. Many of these have been reprinted in a series called the English Reports.

This guidance applies whether you found the law report in print or online.

case name | (year) | volume | nominate report abbreviation | first page, | volume | English Report abbreviation | first page

Footnote (if you HAVE given the case name in the text of your work):
e.g. (1857) 2 H&N 564, 157 ER 232

Footnote (if you HAVE NOT given the case name in the text of your work):
e.g. Boulton v Jones (1857) 2 H&N 564, 157 ER 232

e.g. Boulton v Jones (1857) 2 H&N 564, 157 ER 232

To pinpoint, follow the citation with a comma and the page number from the English Reports. To pinpoint several pages, insert a dash between the page numbers:
e.g. Boulton v Jones (1857) 2 H&N 564, 157 ER 232, 233-235

Case name

  • Always give party names in italics
  • Separate adverse parties with an italic v
  • Don't include and another
  • If multiple parties, name only the first claimant and the first defendant
  • If an individual, don't include forenames or initials
  • Use Re, not In re or In the matter of
  • Use Ex p, not Ex parte
  • Include terms indicating corporate status (Ltd, plc)
  • Abbreviate common words and phrases (see Oscola appendix 4.2.4).

Nominate report citation

  • The year is always given in (round brackets)
  • Use a standard abbreviation for the title of a nominate report series (check the Cardiff Index)
  • No punctuation is needed - use H&N, not H.& N.

English Report citation

  • Don't repeat the year in the English Report citation if it has been given in the nominate report citation
  • Use the standard abbreviation for the English Reports - ER
  • No punctuation is needed - use ER not E.R. 
  • Don't give the court at the end of the English Report citation; if you need to identify the court, do so in the text of your work.