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Referencing - UK & EU Law: Judicial opinion

How do I reference a judicial opinion?

This guidance applies whether you found the document in print or online.

case name | case citation | pinpoint | (judge's last name | abbreviated form of judicial office)

Footnote (if you HAVE given the case name in the text of your work):
e.g. [2010] QB 204 (QB) 206 (Tugendhat J)

Footnote (if you HAVE NOT given the case name in the text of your work):
e.g. Ajinomoto Sweeteners Europe SAS v Asda Stores Ltd [2010] QB 204 (QB) 206 (Tugendhat J)

e.g. Ajinomoto Sweeteners Europe SAS v Asda Stores Ltd [2010] QB 204 (QB) 

Footnote - judicial opinion

To reference a judge's opinion in a footnote, give the judge's last name and the abbreviated form of their judicial office in brackets after the pinpoint. Do not use 'per'.

The conventional abbreviations are:

  • High Court judge - Mr (or Mrs) Justice Smith (abbreviated Smith J)
  • Court of Appeal judge - Lord (or Lady) Justice Smith (abbreviated Smith LJ), but if the judge is a peer use Lord or Lady Smith (no abbreviation)
  • House of Lords judge - Lord (or Lady) Smith (no abbreviation)
  • Supreme Court judge - Lord (or Lady) Smith SCJ, but if the judge is not a peer use Sir John Smith SCJ or Dame Janet Smith SCJ.

All other judges are referred to by full name (or title if a peer), for example ‘Sir John Smith’ or ‘Judge John Smith QC’ (or ‘John Smith QC’ in the case of a barrister sitting as a deputy High Court judge).

If referring to more than one judge of the High Court, the Court of Appeal or the Supreme Court in the short form, follow their last names with JJ, LJJ or SCJJ respectively. However, if the judges are peers, refer to Lord Smith and Lord Jones, not Lords Smith and Jones.

In the text - judicial opinion

In the text of your work, you can refer to a judicial opinion using either the full or the abbreviated form of a judge's name, for example:

'Lord Woolf rejected this argument because...'

'As Tugendhat J pointed out in Ajinomoto Sweeteners...'