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Referencing - International Law: Footnotes

How do I use footnotes?

To create a footnote:

1. In the text of your work, insert a superscript number at the end of a sentence (or directly after a word or phrase, if more appropriate). Put the superscript number after any punctuation in the text. If referencing text in brackets, place the superscript number before the closing bracket.

2. In the corresponding footnote at the bottom of the page, give a reference to the source (e.g. a book) used. End the footnote with a full stop. If you have more than one reference in the footnote, separate them with semi-colons.

For an assignment, number footnotes continuously (start with footnote '1' and continue in numerical sequence to the end of the assignment). For a dissertation, organize your footnotes chapter by chapter (start each chapter with footnote '1' and continue in numerical sequence to the end of each chapter).

Footnote: Secondary source

Secondary sources include: UN documents; books; journals; year books; newspapers; websites and web documents. Give a full reference to the source in a footnote.

If you are referencing the same secondary source more than once in your work, see 'Repeated references'.

Footnote: A source cited in a secondary source

You should cite original sources in your work whenever possible. However, if you aren't able to locate an original source, you can cite 'secondhand'. 

In a footnote, reference the original source as cited in the secondary source. Then in brackets put ‘as cited in’ and cite the secondary source using OSCOLA, including the page or paragraph number where the original source is mentioned. In a bibliography, reference only the secondary source. 

In the above example, I've read a book by Wiener (secondary source) in which he quotes from a book by Clay (original source). I want to use the Clay quote in an assignment, but I couldn't locate the original book by Clay. I can reference the Clay quote in a footnote by citing secondhand. 

Footnote: Case

If the case name is given in the text of your work, give only the case citation in a footnote.

If not, give a full reference (including the case name) in a footnote.

If you are referencing the same case more than once in your work, see 'Repeated references'.

Footnote: Treaties and agreements

If the title of the legislation is given in the text of your work, give only the citation in a footnote.

If not, give a full reference (including the legislation title) in a footnote.

If you are referencing the same legislation more than once in your work, see 'Repeated references'.