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Referencing - International Law: Journal article

How do I reference a journal article?

This guidance applies to print journals and most online journals (see 'Online journals', below).

author, | 'title' | (year) | volume | journal abbreviation or name if no abbreviation is available | first page of article

Footnote:
e.g. Alison L Young, 'In Defence of Due Deference' (2009) 72 MLR 554

Bibliography:
e.g. Young A L, 'In Defence of Due Deference' (2009) 72 MLR 554

To pinpoint, follow the citation with a comma and the page number. To pinpoint several pages, insert a dash between the page numbers:
e.g. Alison L Young, 'In Defence of Due Deference' (2009) 72 MLR 554, 556

Online journals

If a journal is available in print (the journals on Lexis Library, HeinOnline and Westlaw generally are), follow the guidelines above. If a journal is only published online, reference it as follows:

author, | ‘title’ | (year) | volume/issue | journal abbreviation or name if no abbreviation is available | <web address> | date accessed

Footnote:
e.g. Graham Greenleaf, ‘The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information’ (2010) 1(1) EJLT <http://ejlt.org/article/view/17> accessed 28 May 2015

Bibliography:
e.g. Greenleaf G, ‘The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information’ (2010) 1(1) EJLT <http://ejlt.org/article/view/17> accessed 28 May 2015

A pinpoint goes before the web address. However, some online journals may not have page numbers.

Author

In a footnote, cite an author's name as: first name(s) or initial(s) | surname.

In a bibliography, cite an author's name as: surname | initial(s).

Do not include postnominals, such as QC.

If no individual author is identified, but an organisation (e.g. BBC) claims responsibility for the work, then cite it as the author.

If no person or organisation claims responsibility for the work, begin the citation with the title.

More than one author

If a journal article has been written by more than one author, please see either 'Book with two authors' or 'Book with three authors' or 'Book with more than three authors' (as appropriate) for guidance on how to reference the authors' names.

Title of journal article

Enclose the title in 'single quotation marks'.

Give the first letter of all major words a capital letter. Minor words (e.g. 'for', 'and', 'or', 'the') should not be capitalized, unless they begin a title or a subtitle.

If a journal article has a title and a subtitle that are not separated by punctuation, insert a colon : between them.

Year

The year is given in (round brackets).

Volume

Include the volume number (if one is given). Do not include the issue number, e.g. 72(4), unless the page numbers begin again for each issue within a volume, or you are referencing an online only journal (see 'Online journals' box).

Abbreviation for title of journal

Give the title of a journal in abbreviated form with no full stops.

For guidance on journal abbreviations see OSCOLA appendix 4.2.1 or check the Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations. If no abbreviation is available, give the journal title in full.