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Referencing - International Law: Repeated references

How do repeated references work?

You may refer to the same source several times in your work. The first time it is mentioned, you must give a full reference to the source (see 'Footnotes'). After that, you can reference the source in a footnote as follows:

1. Use a shortened form of the source name.

2. Indicate the footnote number where a full reference to the source was last given (n...).

In the above example, footnote 1 contains a full reference to a book by Robert Stevens. In footnote 26, the same book is referenced again. The repeated reference includes: the author's last name (Stevens); the footnote number where a full reference to the source was last given (n 1) and a page number within the book (110).

Can I use Latin terms?

Do not use Latin 'gadgets' such as supra, infra, ante, id, op cit, loc cit and contra.

The abbreviation ibid (meaning 'in the same place') can be used to repeat a citation in the immediately preceding footnote. Never italicize or capitalise ibid.

In the above example, ibid is followed by a page number (6), which means 'in the same work, but this time on page 6'.

If there is more than one citation in the preceding footnote, use ‘ibid’ only if you are referring again to ALL the citations in that footnote.

Repeated reference: Case

Give a full reference to the case the first time it is mentioned (see 'Footnotes'). After that, it can be cited using a shortened form of the case name.

For the example below, the case name - Prosecutor v Tadic - was given in the text of the work and the case citation was given in footnote 21 when the case was first mentioned. The repeated reference is given in footnote 29:

Repeated reference: Legislation

Give a full reference to the legislation the first time it is mentioned (see 'Footnotes'). After that, it can be cited as follows:

Use an abbreviated form of the title (initials of the main words). Give this in (round brackets) after the citation when the legislation is first referenced. After that, use the abbreviated reference.

For the example below, the title - International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights - was given in the text of the work and the citation (followed by an abbreviation form of the title) was given in footnote 17 when the legislation was first mentioned. The repeated reference is given in footnote 25.

Repeated reference: Secondary source

Secondary sources include: UN documents; books, journals; year books; newspapers; websites and web documents.

Give a full reference to the source in a footnote the first time it is mentioned (see 'Footnotes').

After that, it can be cited using the author's last name and the footnote number where a full reference to the source was last given (n ...). See 'How do repeated references work?', above left, for an example.