Skip to main content

Referencing - International Law: Permanent Court of Arbitration

How do I reference a decision from the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)?

This guidance applies whether you found the decision in print or online.

case name | (year) | volume | report series | first page

Footnote and bibliography:
e.g. North Atlantic Coast Fisheries Case (GB v USA) (1910) 1 Scott Hague Court Rep 141

To pinpoint, follow the citation with a comma and the page number. To pinpoint several pages, insert a dash between the page numbers:
e.g. North Atlantic Coast Fisheries Case (GB v USA) (1910) 1 Scott Hague Court Rep 141, 144

Case name

  • Always give a case name in italics
  • Separate adverse parties with an italic v
  • If multiple parties, name only the first claimant and the first defendant
  • If an individual, don't include forenames or initials.

Year

The year is always given in (round brackets).

Series

The main awards and adjudications of the PCA are published in Scott (ed), Hague Court Reports (1916, 1932). Other awards are published in Moore, History and Digest of the International Arbitrations to which the United States has been a Party (1898). You can find both of these publications on HeinOnline as follows:

  • Login to HeinOnline
  • Select 'Legal Classics'
  • Click on 'H'.

Series abbreviation

Use the standard abbreviation for a series:

  • Scott, Hague Court Reports = Scott Hague Court Rep
  • Moore, History and Digest of the International Arbitrations = Moore Intl Arbitrations.